Programa

Jessica R. Lacerte, Washtenaw Community College; Dr. Andrew Nelson, University of Western Ontario

A Comparison of Linear Enamel Hypoplastic Defects between Two Pre-Columbian Peruvian Samples Using Scanning Electron Microscopy

Interruptions to amelogenesis (enamel formation) are expressed on the tooth surface as horizontal grooves known as linear enamel hypoplastic (LEH) defects. When combined with other indicators of physiological stress, LEH defects can assist bioarchaeologists with the reconstruction of overall health in archaeological populations. This research compares dental casts from two Pre-Columbian Peruvian sites: Rinconada Alta (Yschma culture) on the Central coast and Chiribaya Baja (Chiribaya culture) on the Southern coast. Using scanning electron microscopy, LEH defects were observed in both samples to assess the duration and frequency of childhood stress between the two sites.

Dr Veronica Isabel Williams, UnIversidad de Buenos Aires-CONICET; Dr Maria Cecilia Castellanos, ICSOH-CONICET-UNSa; Dr Kevin Lane, IDECU/UBA-CONICET

Agricultural fields and pottery technology as expressions of Inca expansion at middle Calchaquí valley, Salta, Northwest Argentina.

La expansión del estado inca en del actual Noroeste argentino implicó una serie de políticas que variaron a nivel local y regional. En las quebradas altas del sector medio del valle Calchaquí, Salta se ha postulado una ocupación del territorio y una apropiación de lugares con historia previa, una estrategia de incorporación que pudo estar acompañada por la legitimación de espacios a través de la memoria. Las investigaciones permiten señalar nuevos modos de habitar el espacio; un distintivo paisaje agrícola; la instalación de asentamientos en puntos estratégicos y la manufactura y circulación de una cultura material no conocida en la zona. La cerámica de estilo inca estuvo estrechamente vinculada a actividades políticas y fue una vía importante de difusión ideológica que articuló procesos políticos de producción, consumo e identidad.

Dr. (c) Carlos Vicente González Godoy, Instituto de Investigación de Ciencias Sociales y Educación, Universidad de Atacama; Lic Carmen Irene Castells Schencke, Independiente

ARQUEOLOGÍA VIAL INKAICA EN EL DESPOBLADO DE ATACAMA, CHILE: ANTECEDENTES, NUEVOS REGISTROS Y SIGNIFICACIONES ARQUEOASTRONÓMICAS

Nuestra investigación se centra en el camino inka del Despoblado de Atacama, Chile, donde relevamos más de 200 km. Sumamos en este espacio 14 inéditos adoratorios inkas que, unidos a los registros viales, manifiestan particulares ocupaciones de este territorio desértico e internodal, de honda significación ritual, cultural, económica y política para el Inka, que no es sólo una zona de tránsito o de exclusivo interés económico. Asimismo, entregamos observaciones arqueoastronómicas respecto a la naturaleza y significaciones del camino. Equivalentemente, discutimos interpretaciones sobre las vinculaciones entre los inkas y las comunidades locales, desde las implicancias culturales de estas narrativas sociales camineras.

Dr. Janusz Z. WOŁOSZYN, Faculty of Archaeology, University of Warsaw, Poland; Lic. Liz Gonzales Ruiz, Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal, Lima, Peru; Yamagata University, Japan

Bringing Toro Muerto back to life: The past, presence and future of the largest South American rock art complex.

Toro Muerto, located in the desert part of the Majes River valley in southern Peru, is one of the largest and best known complexes of rock art in South America. Unfortunately, it has undergone considerable changes and been partially destroyed due to human and natural factors over the last centuries. Its documentation was incomplete until recently.

In this presentation we would like to report some of the results of the fieldwork of the Polish-Peruvian project conducted at Toro Muerto, discuss the hypotheses that have guided our research, and make some remarks about the (hopefully better) future of this magnificent site.

Mr. Jan Kłaput, University of Warsaw; Dr. Gabriel Prieto, University of Florida

Camelid Mass Sacrifice at Pampa la Cruz, North Coast of Peru: a zooarchaeological analysis

Recent excavations at the site of Pampa la Cruz (Huanchaco archaeological zone in the close vicinity of Chan Chan, the capital of the Chimú) have brought numerous finds of human and animal sacrifices associated with the Chimú culture. This presentation shows the results of an analysis of a large part of camelid remains from these sacrificial burial contexts. The analysis provided data on various features of the examined camelids, possibly relevant for their selection as sacrificial animals, like their age or wool color, giving us an insight into the Chimú ceremonies.

Dr. J. Marla Toyne, University of Central Florida

Characterizing Chachapoya dietary variability in the catastrophic death assemblage at Kuelap, Peru

Bioarchaeological investigations of the catastrophic death assemblage from Kuelap, Chachapoyas, capture dietary variation from a single moment in time using stable isotope analyses. We compare the victims of the mass killing to the rest of the Kuelap burial sample using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen from bone collagen to reconstruct dietary patterns for each group. Massacre victims’ dietary variation produces similar δ13C values, yet distinct δ15N values from others buried from early burials at the site. This suggests victims were likely members of the local community as well as a possible dietary shift with the Inca occupation of the region.

Rachel G. Witt, Tulane University; Dr. Gabriel Prieto, University of Florida-Gainesville; Alan Chachapoyas, Independent; Dr. John Verano, Tulane University

Death that Endures: A Bioarchaeological and Biogeochemical Study of Human Sacrifices from the Moche Valley, Peru

This project investigates how human sacrifice performed by the Chimú Empire (AD 1000/1100-1450/1470) transformed in response to Inca imperialism (AD 1450-1532) at the site of El Pollo, Moche Valley, Peru. Numerous archaeological investigations on the north coast of Peru have shown that while the Inca maintained politico-economic control of the region, sacrifice originally performed by the Chimú endured despite Inca conquest. Using osteological and biogeochemical analyses, this project examines if the treatment, geographic origins, and diets of sacrifices from El Pollo changed through time. Doing so will reveal how sacrifice transformed in response to Inca sociopolitical integration and empire formation.  

Thomas Jamison Snyder, University of California, Davis; Dr. Randall Haas, University of California, Davis ; Shelby Soares, University of California, Davis

Drought Induced Violence on the Andean Altiplano 470 – 1532 CE: A Bioarchaeological Meta-analysis of Conflict and Climate Change

We present a meta-analysis of the effects of climate change on violence in the south-central Andes, 470 – 1532 CE. Ice core data from the Quelccaya glacier is our proxy for environmental conditions, and cranial trauma among bioarchaeological populations is our proxy for interpersonal violence. Generalized linear mixed models show significant relationships between climatic conditions and interpersonal violence for the sample. These relationships are more clear in the highlands, where precipitation predicts cranial trauma incidence. Lowland and midland populations may have had access to a wider diversity of resources buffering the impact of drought and decreasing the likelihood of violent conflict.

Dr. Christian Mesia-Montenegro, Universidad Privada San Juan Bautista; Lic. Angel Sanchez-Borjas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú

Embedded Religiousness and the Kotosh Religious Tradition in the Central Andes: New evidence from La Seductora and Macabalaca in the Ancash and La Libertad regions

Reconstructions of Kotosh Religious Sites Macabalaca and La Seductora

We present evidence from two “new” Kotosh Religious Tradition (KRT) sites, La Seductora and Macabalaca. The site of La Seductora is in La Libertad’s highlands and Macabalaca is on the Huarmey coast. Excavations at la Seductora identified a circular structure with an underground ventilation shaft while at Macabalaca, a rectangular structure with niches on its walls; both with a central hearth. We argue that authorities used KRT structures as mediators of political and social dynamics, concealing their interests under careful religious practices. We call this strategy “embedded religiousness” where social and political relations were embedded in the KRT religious system.

Dylan Reed Smith, University of Central Florida; J. Marla Toyne, University of Central Florida ; Bernarda Elías Delgado, Museo de Sitio Túcume; Jose Manuel Villalta Escudero, Museo de Sitio Túcume

Exploring Dietary Trajectories of Social Elites from a Late Horizon (1470–1532 CE) cemetery at Túcume Peru

This research utilized stable isotopic data to investigate dietary variation among social elites within a Late Horizon (1470–1532 CE) cemetery at Túcume, Peru. Aggregate cemetery datasets are limited to characterizing broad group variation, often obscuring individual dietary patterns. Fifteen paired bone and tooth samples from juveniles, males, and females were compared to consider trajectories of change related to age and biological sex. Results suggested individuals consumed a varied diet that shifted throughout life with distinct gendered trajectories. Regional comparisons to contemporaneous coastal sites revealed similar group variation suggesting these patterns extended beyond the Late Horizon influence of the Inca.

Ms. Patricia Chirinos Ogata, University of California Santa Barbara; Ms. Vanessa Bernal Multon, Independent Scholar

Following the Caolin Trail: Cajamarca Archaeology and the Reichlen Collection

Map of the archaeological sites in the Cajamarca Basin as proposed by Reichlen and Reichlen in 1949

In 1949 Henri Reichlen and the French Ethnological Mission proposed a first cultural sequence for the Cajamarca basin, which opened the door to understanding both local developments and interregional connections. Mostly unpublished, their materials awaited in museums in Lima, Cajamarca and Paris until 2018, when the analysis of the Lima portion of the collection started. Since then, a multidisciplinary study of artifacts and documents allowed us to address information gaps and to reconstruct the biography of the Reichlen Collection. This paper presents preliminary results, focused on the Caolin Cajamarca vessels, and situates this dataset in the context of both Peruvian and Cajamarca archaeology during the key decades of 1940’s and 1950’s.

Dr. Gabriela Cervantes Quequezana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

Gendered Trajectories and Political Power in Sican/Lambayeque Funerary Practices

This presentation examines gendered trajectories followed to obtain political power within Middle Sicán élites (A.D. 900-1100) through the analyses of diverse variables associated to the funerary practices in Huaca Loro, located in the Sicán capital.

Multivariate analyses show a great variability of the funerary practices recorded. There seems to be a correspondence between gender roles (as interpreted through the metal objects) and the biological sex of the individuals. In terms of political power, an alternative proposal is presented about the way in which women would access power in the Sicán/Lambayeque society, and possibly in other Andean societies.

Aleksa Alaica, University of Alberta; Luis Manuel González La Rosa, Archaeology Centre, University of Toronto; Willy Yépez Álvarez, Royal Ontario Museum; Justin Jennings, Royal Ontario Museum

Herding Companions and Other-Than-Human Persons: Dog Burials at the Middle Horizon Site of La Real, Arequipa Peru (600-1000 CE)

This talk will discuss the dog burials from the Middle Horizon (600-1000 CE) site of La Real, Arequipa. We explore the role of dogs in the daily and ritual activities of local communities and foreign delegates through zooarchaeological analysis and osteometric methods. Age profiles and size variation of more than a dozen dogs reveals puppies and older dogs were cared for at this site. Also, several possible breeds were used in herding practices, as companions and as ritual offerings incorporated into final closing ceremonies that involved disarticulating dogs, camelids, parrots, and humans.

Ms. Amandine Flammang, Université libre de Bruxelles; Dr. Kevin Lane, Universidad de Buenos Aires - CONICET

Hybrid Funerary Landscapes : Preliminary Review of Mortuary Structures in the Cordillera Negra, Ancash, Peru (AD 1000-1532)

Open-sepulcher tombs (chullpas) are often omnipresent in the suni-puna (3,500-4,800 m) ecozones of the highlands. A recent survey in the Upper Nepeña drainage shows a close correlation between these chullpas and agropastoralist production areas during the Huaylas period (AD 1000-1400). Moreover, that region evidenced significant Inca presence (AD 1400-1532) in the shape of Intiaurán, a small imperial administrative site, set among this mortuary landscape. A close examination of this landscape seems to demonstrate that an increasing Inca footprint in the area might have led to a transformation of Huaylas ideological adscription, revealed through changing patterns in the orientation and architecture of these chullpas in relation to the surrounding sacred landscape.

Institute of Andean Studies, Working Group on Ethical Conduct in Andean Studies

IAS Code of Conduct and Related Policies Statement and Documents

Poster coming soon!

The IAS recently implemented the IAS Code of Conduct and Related Policies which will be referenced in the Bardolph et al. poster "Power, Politics, and Public Secrets: Assessing the Impacts of Sexual Misconduct in the Andean Studies Community." For a short statement and to download the Code of Conduct and Related Policies document, please click here.

Jonathan Ritter, UC Riverside

Indigenous Cosmopolitans and the Tourist Encounter: Taquile’s Fiesta de Santiago as Contact Zone

For more than forty years, tourists have travelled to Taquile Island in the Peruvian waters of Lake Titicaca with the goal of experiencing local indigenous life among some of the “last Incas.” While critiques of similar heritage sites suffuse the literature on cultural tourism, Taquile’s model of grassroots control over the local tourist industry has made it a celebrated, if regularly challenged, outlier in this narrative. In this paper, I analyze the Fiesta de Santiago as a dynamic, autoethnographic text: a story that Taquileños tell to themselves and to the world about who they are as an indigenous community today.

Dr. Cesar W. Astuhuaman, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Departamento de Arqueología

La red de caminos y centros inca en la Depresión/Deflexión de Huancabamba

Inca road network at the Huancabamba Depression

El objetivo la ponencia es entender la distribución espacial de la red de caminos y centros inca, mediante análisis de redes y jerarquía de asentamientos, en la Depresión/Deflexión de Huancabamba (Piura - Cajamarca - Amazonas).

La red de caminos conectaba una decena de centros provinciales y estuvo conformada por tres ejes longitudinales que recorrían la chaupiyunga, la sierra y la ceja de selva, y eran interconectados por caminos transversales. En un nodo territorial durante el Horizonte Medio se instaló un centro wari/cajamarca de patrón ortogonal y posteriormente los inca construyeron el centro provincial de Caxas y la fortificación de Huancacarpa.

Jordi Benites Segura, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

La secuencia de ocupación de los montículos del valle alto de Chingas, sierra oriental de Áncash, Perú

Una de las tradiciones arquitectónicas más extendidas en la sierra de Áncash, y a su vez poco entendida cronológicamente, es aquella conformada por el arquetipo conocido como “montículo a base de plataformas”.

Presentamos la secuencia de ocupación preliminar de una conglomeración de 10 montículos distribuidos a lo largo del Valle alto de Chingas (sur de Conchucos - Alto Marañón). Dicha secuencia posee fases continuas entre los periodos Formativo Temprano e Intermedio Temprano, sin embargo, se evidencian además ocupaciones posteriores -aunque en menor medida-, relacionadas a los periodos Intermedio Tardío e Inca. Destaca la presencia de estilos foráneos, como el estilo “Wairajirca”, identificada tradicionalmente en torno a la cuenca del Alto Huallaga. A si como estilos que hemos registrado recientemente en el norte de Huánuco (margen derecha del Alto Marañón).

Dr. Silvia Rodriguez Kembel, University of Colorado - Boulder

Lessons from the Lanzón: Insights on the Construction of Social Complexity from the Early Galleries at Chavín de Huántar, Perú”

By understanding how and when Chavín de Huántar’s monumental architecture grew, we can better investigate the emergence of social authority within the Formative Andes.

This talk begins by reviewing Chavin’s architectural sequence and its chronometric dating, presenting thirty-two radiocarbon dates from samples collected directly from mortar within the site’s monumental buildings. Results indicate that Chavín’s ceremonial core grew largely over 400 years, approximately 1200-800calBC, during which the vast majority of Chavín’s characteristic elements developed. Massive and intensive construction occurred 1000-800calBC, and around 800calBC the center’s physical layout stabilized. Little growth occurred 800-500calBC but the temple’s buildings were carefully maintained as they continued to function.

Within this sequence, early galleries illuminate Chavín architects’ emerging strategies for developing authority. A case study compares the growth trajectories of the Lanzón Gallery and the galleries of the NEA, the site’s earliest known building, particularly the Escalinata-Alacenas Gallery complex. It highlights critical design decisions the site’s builders made to change how the site functioned, reflecting the evolving roles of architecture at Chavín.

Dr. Patricia Knobloch, Research Associate, Institute of Andean Studies

Moche Midwife Agency and the Enigmatic Dipper

Fourteen Moche stirrup bottles were studied depicting sitting mothers, doulas for support and midwives all forming a birthing narrative. Why was a dipper (an incurving bowl with a pointed, phallic shape handle – aka canchero) painted into this scene? Birthing can involve amniotomy (intentional rupture of the amniotic sac to induce labor) and saving placentas. Perhaps the midwife’s agency included amniotomy using the dipper handle and safeguarding the placenta in the bowl’s ideal size for a 1.5lb placenta. Inca Atahualpa’s placenta was buried at Cajamarca. Inca Yupanqui saved his in his mother’s gold statue. Midwife agency could be significant to an adult’s identity. 

Dr. Sarah A. Massey , Independent ; Lic. César Durand P., Independent ; Lic. George Edward Chauca I., Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

New Geoglyphs, New Insights: La Peña de Tajahuana, Ica

Detail from area of new figurative geoglyphs identified along the south slopes below major architectural complex on the summit of Cerro Tajahuana, Ica Valley.

Two new areas of figurative geoglyphs were identified during 2021 aerial mapping and reconnaissance of the southern summit of Cerro Tajahuana in the middle Ica Valley.  The images correspond to the Late Paracas Phase.  Unlike other areas in the Ica Valley where similar  figurative glyphs appear, Tajahuana is the only site where they occur in association with monumental architecture that includes a large walled enclosure with patio, mound structures, an extensive system of walls and linear and geometric markings.  Together they suggest a non-secular interpretation for much of the summit.  Radiocarbon dates obtained obtained in 2019 excavations suggest a summit occupation from @  400-100 BC.

Mgtr. Elsa Valeria Antezana Soria, Universidad de Tarapacá, Chile

PAISAJES DIFUSOS, ACTORES NÍTIDOS : EL ROL DE LAS COMUNIDADES CARANGAS EN LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DEL PAISAJE COLONIAL EN TORNO AL CAMINO REAL DE POTOSÍ (SIGLOS XVI AL XVIII)

Los paisajes coloniales del altiplano boliviano y chileno fueron poco estudiados por la arqueología, siendo reconstruidos mayormente desde fuentes históricas que suelen invisibilizar la contribución indígena en su producción. Mediante una metodología interdisciplinaria me propongo evidenciar cómo las comunidades Carangas construyen y transforman el paisaje colonial, en torno a una sección del Camino Real de Potosí, situada en el Altiplano Central Boliviano y el altiplano chileno colindante. El paisaje resultante presenta pueblos, iglesias, cajas reales y trapiches, superpuestos y entremezclados con tambos, pukaras, chullpas y wakas, en un espacio intermedio que fue introducido parcialmente en procesos extractivistas y mercantilistas.

Katherine Morucci, University of California, Davis

Paleohistology for Mummies: Identifying Archaeological Correlates of Infectious Diseases in Mummified South American Camelids

Andean camelid herding practices were forever changed after the collapse of the prehispanic state. Following Spanish conquest there was a dramatic crash in camelid populations, accounting for an estimated 80-90% mortality of domestic and wild forms. Despite successful conservation initiatives, modern populations have yet to be restored to their pre-conquest numbers. Though the cause of this bottleneck has yet to be determined, the introduction of Spanish sheep may have resulted in a significant shift in native Andean ecology. Spanish colonization of the Andes may have influenced South American camelid ecology through the introduction of non-native species and pathogens.

Dana Bardolph, Northern Illinois University; Sofia Chacaltana Cortez, Jesuit University Antonio Ruiz de Montoya; Violeta Killian Galvan, Universidad de Buenos Aires; Andrew Hamilton, Art Institute of Chicago; Melissa Murphy, University of Wyoming; Laura Pey, Universidad de Buenos Aires; Bill Sapp, US Forest Service; Beth K. Scaffidi, University of California, Merced

Power, politics, and public secrets: Assessing patterns and impacts of sexual misconduct in the Andean Studies community

image of person with nested faces speaking on a microphone

Our participation in the Working Group on Ethical Conduct in Andean Studies (AS) led us to recommend a survey of the AS community (broadly defined) to assess the pervasiveness and impacts of sexual misconduct. The survey aims to determine: Does the AS community have a reputation for sexual misconduct; is misconduct and inadequate responses to it systemic; and how has this conduct impacted professional trajectories and personal well-being? We outline proposed survey questions and discuss our intercultural framework for survey design, along with its challenges. We request feedback from attendees on questions, strategies for avoiding revictimization, and gaining buy-in of key stakeholders and respondents.

Arianna Garvin, University of California, San Diego; Paul S. Goldstein, University of California, San Diego

Preliminary Research into Past, Socio-ecological Interactions at the Site of Puerto Malabrigo, Chicama Valley, Peru

This proposed research explores the resilient ways in which humans adapted to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events at the site of Puerto Malabrigo, Chicama Valley of the north coast, Peru. Puerto Malabrigo is a key place to explore human-ENSO interactions as the site is a strategic forefront of rich marine biodiversity and includes the Paijan-Desert dunes and the irrigated floodplain. Our preliminary findings (August-September 2021) suggest that Puerto Malabrigo was continuously occupied from the Cupisnique (1200-500 BC) to the Chimu (1200-1470 AD) periods, by people who actively engaged with an environment that changed dramatically through these periods.

Anthony Alex Villar Quintana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

Presencia Wari en la Alta Amazonia nororiental peruana: : Una perspectiva desde la cuenca del Utcubamba.

El registro de campo, la revisión de colecciones arqueológicas e informes de investigación, nos permiten demostrar que la presencia Wari en la cuenca del Utcubamba no solo se limita a alfarería relacionada a esta sociedad, como las reportadas en Kuélap. De esta manera se observan complejos arquitectónicos de patrón ortogonal celular en Yurumarca y Donse, contextos funerarios de elite asociados a objetos de obsidiana y plata en Las Higueras, y figurinas de piedra en los alrededores de Lamud, estas últimas vinculadas a algunos contextos Wari en la costa norte. A partir de los datos arqueológicos obtenidos en nuestra área de estudio, consideramos que la expansión Wari hacia esta zona de la Alta Amazonia estuvo relacionado con la ampliación de la frontera agrícola y la extracción de recursos tan importantes como la sal.

Dr. Bebel R Ibarra, Tulane University

Recuay and its Relationship with Wari during the Middle Horizon: New Perspectives from Conchucos, Highland Ancash

Recuay site in Ancash

The Middle Horizon in the central Andes has been characterized by the expansion of the Wari state.   Architecture and pottery of Wari style are evidence of such expansion but present only in a few sites outside of Ayacucho. In highland Ancash most evidence for Wari influence is in the Callejon de Huaylas at sites such as Wilcawain and Honcopampa. However, the situation is completely different in the Conchucos region east of the Cordillera Blanca. Excavations and surveys in the Huaritambo valley of different Recuay sites dating between AD 100 and 900 have revealed architecture usually considered as typical of  Wari, such as patio groups, niched walls, and chullpas.

André Ramos-Chacón, Vanderbilt University

Reframing the Inca-Spanish Encounter : Titu Cusi Yupanqui’s Relación de cómo los españoles entraron en el Perú (c. 1570)

In this presentation, I study Titu Cusi's Relación de cómo los españoles entraron en el Perú. I argue that Titu Cusi reframed the history of the conquest of Peru by shifting the centrality of events from Cajamarca, 1532, with Atahualpa in the central role, to Cuzco, 1536. with Manco Inca as protagonist. Also, that Titu Cusi reframed Inca-Spanish encounters based on Incan oral history retrieved from Manco Inca’s surviving entourage, but also thanks to Christian rhetoric and canon law, which provided the framework to present Manco Inca’s war against the Spaniards as a just war.

Dennis Nicolas Lorenzo, University of Yamagata

Rutas del Formativo Medio y Tardío en la Zona Altoandina de Lambayeque, Norte del Perú

Fisiografía de la Zona altoandina de Lambayeque

La zona altoandina de Lambayeque se ubica en la zona de transición entre la costa norte y la vertiente nororiental en el norte peruano, donde, por medio de actividades exploratorias que forman parte del programa arqueológico AYLLUKUNA se han puesto evidencia la existencia de dos rutas primarias -1 y 2-, y cinco rutas secundarias asociadas con el Periodo Formativo Medio y Tardío. En el formativo medio (1200 - 800 a.C.), la ruta 1 se asocia con asentamientos de carácter especializados, mientras que, en el formativo tardío (800 - 550 a.C.) la ruta 2 se vincula con asentamientos de carácter monumental, y figura como la ruta de menor costo.

Dr. Christopher J. Santiago, College of Staten Island (CUNY)

Singing, Dreaming and Resistance Among the Water Guardians of Cajamarca, Peru

This video presentation is based on Santiago's fieldwork with the peasants of Cajamarca (2012-2014) and their struggle against the Conga gold mining mega-project. The presentation focuses on dreaming and singing as native arts of resistance that proved crucial in the fight for water and life, specifically the dreams and songs of Señora Máxima Acuña Atalaya de Chaupe and Señora Santos, and reflects on the power of cultural resistance.

Institute of Andean Studies, Blue Ribbon Commission on Engaging African and their Descendants in Andean Studies

The Blue Ribbon Commission Report on Engaging Africans and their Descendants in Andean Studies

Poster coming soon!

The IAS recently published the a report summarizing the work of the Blue Ribbon Commission on Engaging Africans and their Descendants in Andean Studies, which will be discussed in the plenary session "The Blue Ribbon Commission Report and the State of Andean Studies." For a short statement and to download the report, please click here.

Solsire Cusicanqui, Harvard University

The Cajamarca of the Apu Rumitiana (Santa Apolonia Hill): integrating the past and the present through community-based and reflexive archaeology

Santa Apolonia Hill or Apu Rumitiana is located in the heart of the city of Cajamarca, Perú.

The Apu Rumitiana is in the heart of the city of Cajamarca in the north-central Andes of Peru, with a continuous occupation from the Formative to the Late Cajamarca Periods. In this talk I will focus on the Middle Cajamarca Period, (EIP-MHP, AD 450-850) when there is increased ritual use and production of food and beverages on a large scale in the site.  This is an articulated project for and with the Cajamarca population that seeks to approach a comprehensive archaeological process, incorporating a community- and socio-emotional approach to heritage with the aim of recovering the memory of this Apu

Dr. Patrick J Mullins, University of Pittsburgh

The Huacas of the Confluence: Unions of Huacas and Landscapes in the Moche Valley Chaupiyunga of Peru

This paper presents insights from a synthesis of archaeological surveys that recorded a cluster of Guañape Phase (~1600 – 500 BCE) huacas, platform mounds, at the final confluence of the Moche River in a coastal-highland frontier region called the chaupiyunga. I propose that the shared axes and orientations of these huacas of the confluence visually bound them to each other, to distant auspicious mountain peaks, and to the river and its confluence. This set of connections was most elegantly built at Huaca la Divisoria: a mountaintop u-shaped huaca that was uniquely positioned to visually connect down-valley landscapes with those of the highlands.

Ms Andrea K Gonzales Lombardi, Universidad de Ingeniería y Tecnología

The Piuran : a regional entity facing imperial powers at the Huancabamba Depression

Piura; Sican; Spatial Analysis; Architectural Patterns

This presentation aims to characterize the architectural forms of a local entity within the Alto Piura or chaupiyunga. Spatial analysis through aerial photographs and remote sensing imagery conducted at the sites of Piura [La Vieja], Pabur and their surroundings have exposed architectural patterns and landscape modifications that differ from the Sican, Chimu and Inca patterns, on both rural and provincial levels. In the light of these findings, this research will: 1) reassess the idea that the Piura Valley was occupied by passive recipients of imperial infrastructure and goods; 2) characterize the Piuran chaupiyunga polity, which negotiated with successive states/empires.

Dr. Brendan J. M. Weaver, Stanford University; Lic. Miguel A. Fhon Bazan, Gerencia de Cultura, Municipalidad Metropolitana de Lima

Toward a comparative archaeology of the slavery in Peru: Lima and the Haciendas of Nasca

Together with historical documentation, there are sufficient legacy collections and evidence from reports archaeological since the 1970s in Lima’s historic city center for analysis of the substantial African presence in the former viceregal capital. We return to the excavations at Lima’s Casa Bodega y Quadra, the site of an early colonial butcher’s shop worked by enslaved Africans and later elite residence with enslaved domestic workers and artisans. We place these findings in conversation with archaeological research at the Jesuit haciendas of Nasca. The preliminary results of these efforts point to the possibilities of comparative archaeology of slavery at rural and urban locations in Peru.

Dr. Laura Pey, CONICET - Instituto de Arqueología (IA), Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires

Towards a textile interpretation of Andean agrarian landscapes: the case of Cusi Cusi (Puna of Jujuy, Argentina)

This presentation proposes a theoretical-methodological approach to the Andean agrarian landscape, in which it is interpreted as a textile in two dimensions: a weaving of practices and their material traces, and as a weaving of narratives. The weaving is not just an analogy, it refers to an Andean ‘ontological attitude’ traced archaeologically, ethnographically and ethnohistorically, which implies weaving with the body by taking up previous elements —in this case, to construct the agrarian landscape. As an example, the results of an investigation focused on four archaeological sites of Cusi Cusi (Puna de Jujuy, Argentina) inhabited since 1300 AD are presented. 

Dr. Jordan A. Dalton, American Museum of Natural History

Weight and Measurement in the Andes: Evaluating the role of balanzas

Balance beam scales (balanzas) have been found throughout western South America, but their use and function remain poorly understood. In the historic records they are described as being used to weigh small quantities of metals, coca, and cotton, but exactly how and why balanzas were used to measure these goods remains unclear. This paper presents new data on balanzas recovered through excavations at the site of Las Huacas in the Chincha Valley and artifacts from museum collections. This data will then be integrated with a discussion of systems of weight and measurement in the Andes and throughout the world.

Lisseth Rojas-Pelayo, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú; Erick Acero Shapiama, Programa Arqueológico Chavín

¿Cuánta carne hay en casa? Aproximaciones a la distribución de carne de camélido durante el Formativo Tardío en Chavín de Huántar

A través del develamiento de productos exóticos en Chavín queda claro que el templo estuvo inmerso en una red de acceso de larga distancia. Pero, ¿qué sabemos de las unidades domésticas del periodo? Aquí intentamos aproximarnos a las estrategias de aprovisionamiento de los pocos hogares descubiertos. Para ello, nos centramos en la revisión de investigaciones que tratan la problemática del consumo de camélidos, datos revisados a través del enfoque distribucional con el objetivo de acercarnos a las dinámicas de acceso y la frecuencia de distribución al interior de los hogares.